Plants – useful information
The world of plants is vast. We have made an effort to gather useful information about plants in one place. Here, you will learn, among other things, about the impact of plants on indoor humidity regulation, as well as about the proper lighting and temperatures for specific species.
The impact of plants on indoor humidity regulation
Plants have a significant impact on regulating indoor humidity levels. Poor air quality is often associated with overly dry air, which is particularly noticeable during the heating season. While preparing our projects, we often observe a drop in air humidity during the winter season, sometimes falling below 20%. It’s important to note that healthy air should have a humidity level between 40% and 65%. Plants help regulate indoor air humidity through the transpiration of water.
Plants absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen, which is essential for life
The average carbon dioxide level in winter is about 400 ppm. Research and our observations confirm that even in a ventilated room with people, the carbon dioxide levels can approach 1000 ppm. During one of our presentations to students in landscape architecture classes, our measurements with the TARGAS-1 device showed values greater than 3000 ppm after 1 hour of presenting in a classroom without proper ventilation. The poster next to this text displays the results of our own research conducted in our laboratory.
Worth to add
- Plants absorb and neutralize substances that are part of smog.
- Plants absorb many toxic substances found in indoor spaces. As early as 1989, NASA conducted research to identify the best set of plants occurring in our interiors to purify the air. Most of these species work very well in vertical gardens.
- Plants influence temperature regulation both indoors and outdoors.
Choosing plants for a vertical garden
Almost any plant can grow on a vertical garden, but each will require different care and varying amounts of work. This can significantly impact its lifespan. Different plants have different requirements and various cleansing properties, affecting air quality.
Below is a list of plants that we have used and successfully grown on vertical gardens.
Plants for Very Bright Locations
- Aechmea – Echmea – 800 – 1000 lux, 18-22°C is a plant susceptible to aphids, scale insects, and mealybugs. In high temperatures, it is prone to aphid infestations. At low temperatures and excessive soil moisture, the rosette can rot.
- Aeschynanthus – Eschynanthus – 1000 lux, 18-20°C. In dry air, the plant is vulnerable to mealybugs and aphids. Improper watering can cause leaf spots.
- Cyperus – Cibora – 1500 lux, 12-20°C. Dry air can lead to the tips of the leaves drying out.
- Guzmania – Guzmania – 800 – 1000 lux, 18-22°C, prefers higher humidity.
- Ficus – Fikus – 600 – 2000 lux, 15-20°C, such as Benjamina and elastica ‘Decora’.
- Musa acuminata – Dwarf Banana – 1000 lux, 18-20°C.
- Nepenthes – Pitcher Plant – 1200 lux, 20-22°C, prefers high humidity.
- Nidularium innocenti – Striped Nidularium – 1000 lux, 20-25°C.
Plants for moderately lit areas
Anthurium – Anthurium – 600 – 1000 lux, 18-22°C, is susceptible to scale insects and aphids. In dry air, spider mites and mealybugs can appear. At low temperatures, root rot can occur.
Areca – Areca Palm – 800 – 1000 lux, 16-20°C. In dry air, the leaves can dry out.
Caladium bicolor – Caladium Bicolor – 1000 lux, 20 – 25°C, prefers high humidity.
Codiaeum variegatum – Croton Plant – 1000 – 5000 lux, 18-20°C.
Chlorophytum comosum – Spider Plant – 1500 lux, 8 – 20°C. Due to dehydration or a lack of nutrients, the tips of the leaves may dry out.
Neoregalia carolinae, Neoregalia Karolina – 1000 lux, 20 – 25°C.
Nephrolepsis – 800 – 100 lux, 16-18°C.
Peperomia – Peperomia (caperata, arifolia, glebella, griseoargentea, incana, obtusifolia, verticillate, scandens) 800-1000 lux, 18-22°C.
Platycerium bifurcatum – Staghorn Fern – 600 – 1000 lux, 18-22°C.
Sansevieria trifasciata – Snake Plant – 800-1000 lux, 18-25°C.
Plants for shaded areas
- Aspidistra – Aspidistra – 400 – 600 lux, 15-18°C
- Asplenium – Asplenium – 800 – 1000 lux, 18-20°C, they like higher humidity
- Cissus – Cissus – 500-800 lux., 15-20°C. Yellowing of leaves indicates too bright light or lack of nutrients.
- Chamaedorea elegans – Parlor Palm – 500 – 600 lux, 15 – 20°C
- Davallia mariesii – Hare’s Foot Fern – 600 – 800 lux, 15-20°C (prefers cooler conditions in winter)
- Dieffenbachia – Dieffenbachia – 500 – 800 lux., 18-25°C
- Dracaena – Dracaena – 400 – 600 lux., 18-22°C,
- Deremensis, Deremensis Yellow Stripe, Janet Compacta
- Epipremnum – Scindapsus – 400 lux, 18-22°C, doesn’t like too low temperatures
- Hedera – Ivy – 500 – 1000 lux, 12-20°C, doesn’t like dry air
- Hoya – minimum 700-800 lux, 16-20°C, prefers cooler conditions in winter, Carnosa, carnosa ‘compacta’.
- Howea forsteriana – Kentia Palm – 500 – 600 lux, 14 – 25°C, in too dry air, the leaf tips may dry out.
- Maranta – Maranta – 400 – 600 lux, 18-22°C, the plant likes higher humidity
- Monstera deliciosa – Swiss Cheese Plant – 600 – 800 lux, 18-22°C,
- Aglaonema – Aglaonema – 200-400 lux, 15-20°C, the plant is susceptible to mealybugs and scale insects, in dry air to spider mites.
- Calathea – Calathea – 500 – 800 lux, 18 – 22°C, Varieties: crocata, majestica, lancifolia, makoyana, picturata, rufibarba, zebrina – they like higher humidity
- Ctenanthe – Ctenanthe – 500 – 600 lux, 18-22°C
- Adiantum – Maidenhair Fern – 600 – 800 lux, 15 – 20°C, the fern is susceptible to nematodes, aphids, scale insects, mealybugs, and thrips. Dry air causes browning of leaves.
- Philodendron – Philodendron (varieties Angustisectum, bipennifolium, erubescens, pedatum, scandens) 600- 800 lux, 18-22°C
- Polystichum tsus-simense – Polystichum tsus-simense – 600 – 800 lux, 16-20°C, prefers cooler air in winter
- Polystichum falcatum – Polystichum falcatum – 600 – 800 lux, 12-18°C, prefers cooler air in winter.
Plants thrive only in their optimal environments. Most vegetables and herbs require full sun and hot summers to grow. Succulents like to be dry and fully sunlit. Ferns prefer shaded, bright areas that are humid and cool at night. Our indoor environment is best suited for “houseplants.” Most of them come from shaded areas in tropical forests, so by providing them with artificial light, we can bring them closer to their natural conditions.
We cover interesting topics about plants on our Facebook page – Vertical Gardens.